Organ transplantation is the process to removal the body organs to another person. In health sciences, transplantation was conducted in order to replace a damaged organ recipients or the organ which no longer have a functions with a new organ from the donors. But with the development of medical technology, transplantation can also be done through the creation of organs derived from the patient’s own cells, like stem cells, or through extraction from organ failure.
The several organs,which can be transplanted are the heart, kidneys, liver, lung, pancreas, intestine, thymus, and skin. Similarly, bone tissue, tendons, corneas, heart valve, and veins. So far, the kidney is the most commonly transplanted organ.
In fact, transplantation medicine is one field of modern medical science’s most challenging and complicated. Because it is closely related to several key factors such as a rejection of the organs to union with the patient’s body. Reaction rejection of organ transplant to the recipients body could be reduced through the provision of the same stereostype organ between recipient and donor, with the use of immunosuppressant drugs.
Transplantation also raises a number of bioethical issues, including definitions related death (when it is appropriate to take organs from the donor’s body), and how consent should be given to organ transplant, how the funding for organ transplants, as well as other ethical issues. Even including the socio-economic context and the issue of organ trafficking.
History of Organ Transplantation
Organ transplant has lasted for centuries. In the 16th century, noted Italian surgeons first tried grafting surgery patients with leg ulcers caused by diabetes, but failed because of patient body rejection.
Followed by a corneal transplant performed the first successful allograft in 1837. Following a successful cornea transplant in humans, using techniques keratoplastic operations conducted in Olomouc Eduard Zirm 1905.
Since the early 1900s the French surgeon Dr. Alexis Carrel was also able to graft an artery or vein. Operation of this anastomosis is laying foundations of organ transplant surgery, so Dr. Carrel won 1912 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Now the technique of Carrel became the foundation surgeons worldwide.
Multiple Organ, which was successfully transplanted
Kidney transplantation is the most often type of organ transplantion which was committed in the whole world. Because, in principle, every body that normally has a pair of kidneys located on the right and left cavity waist. Given the people will remain alive even with just one kidney, thus many people often donate kidneys to relatives or the needy. With the prototype having the same record, both in terms of blood and immune systems are still functioning, to avoid rejection of the body.
Heart, which only have one in the human body can be transplanted. Namely donors obtained from someone who just died in the accident.
The first heart transplant and successfully conducted on March 9, 1981 at Stanford University Hospital, led by Prof. Bruce Reitz. Recovery of patients alive 18 months can be maintained by providing immunosupresan and cyclosporine-A after the operation.
Since the year 1984 can also be transplanted liver, and even about 70 percent of patients after surgery can last more than five years or more. With the increased success rate of transplantation and the discovery of modern immunosuppression, organ transplantation has become a general in critical situations. Progress in successful live-donor transplants will become a necessity in the future.
Even organ allograft transplantation, especially the eye cornea has become common knowledge with a very high success rate, and could help thousands of patients with corneal blindness from damage throughout the world.
Stem Cell Organ Replacement
Another interesting thing, is the development of stem cell transplantation for treatment through the regenerative disease. The method is very promising stem cells through in an effort to solve the problem of organ transplant rejection with re-growth technique (regrowing) organs in the laboratory, which is derived from the patient’s own cells (or stem cells derived from a healthy person).
Currently the Institute for Regenerative Medicine, North Carolina, Dr. Anthony and his colleagues have managed to extract muscle and bladder cells from a patient’s body, and then cultivated or propagated in a glass dish. These new cells are placed in special molds that resemble three-dimensional shape of the bladder.
Within weeks, the cells began to function as a bladder (bladder) and then implanted back ordinary into the patient’s body. The team is currently working for the healing to grow more than 22 other different organs including liver, heart, kidney and testis.
Earlier in the Barcelona Metro Hospital, in June 2008, Professor Paolo Macchiarini from the University of Barcelona, successfully engineered trachea through a pipeline network that resembles the trachea, or airway of the patient’s bone marrow stem cells.
The engineered cells which grow into large populations and mature into cartilage cells, or chondrocytes. Form the trachea, then the results were transplanted into patients with encouraging results.
Similarly, the University of California Irvine, which is developing a technique
stem cells to cure diseases and also kebutaaan paralysis caused by damage to the retina, which is as yet no cure.
Not be denied, in future stem cell is the best response to organ transplantation, because rejection can eliminate the problems, having trouble finding an organ donor, as well as reduce the cost of an expensive surgery.
Hopefully the progress of modern treatment like organ transplantation will work well in a not too distant future.